corrosion inhibitor mechanism

Precipitation film-type inhibitors are chemicals forming insoluble protective films by reaction with soluble species in the environments (e.g., phosphonates and polyphosphates, forming protective films with calcium ions in solution) or with the protected metal ions (e.g., copper-benzotriazole (BTA) salt film). It was found that the thiourea encapsulated microcapsule using PVA as a protective agent had better release time. << /D [ 3 0 R /XYZ null 296.18509 null ] The effectiveness of a corrosion inhibitor depends on fluid composition, quantity of water, and flow regime. Direct corrosion-inhibitor incorporation in the sol–gel hybrid matrix proved unsuitable as self-healing coatings because of the negative effect of the corrosion inhibitor (mostly benzotriazole) on the stability and barrier properties of the sol–gel layer [37]. Among the various methods to avoid or prevent destruction or degradation of metal surface, the corrosion inhibitor is one of the best know methods of corrosion protection and one of the (Water-based) epoxy primer and epoxy topcoat, 0.05 M NaCl immersion, salt spray test, EIS. The new intersection with the anodic curve (A1) is at point Y. Anion exchange hydrotalcite-like can provide effective inhibition of FFC inhibition of FFC part, by the anionexchange and acidneutralizing effect. Since the first papers dealing with the application of BTA for copper in the late 1960s, the number and quality of scientific studies on the application of corrosion inhibitors for metallic heritage conservation have been increasing, especially in the last 15 years. Besides inorganic nanoparticles, inorganic nanocontainers are also used as a carrier system. Among several developed strategies to contain copper corrosion, inhibitors of many-sided benefits that involve both environmental and economic friendliness boil down to the use of organic compounds. The use and production of these chemicals may involve reduced waste products, non-toxic components, and improved efficiency. Arenas, in Rare Earth-Based Corrosion Inhibitors, 2014. LDH structure preferentially formed on surface sites located at active intermetallics. Vapor phase corrosion inhibitors are volatile compounds introduced in a closed system for corrosion protection. The findings of this group triggered the search for a new family of environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors based on rare earth salt compounds. The inhibitor molecules either attach to the metal or react with the surface to form a thin, adherent layer. While this approach lowers the solubility of inhibitors in water, it is based on a mass-action governed release mechanism that is not a selective process for damage-induced activation. The chemistry of the inhibitor also determines if it is classified as water soluble or oil soluble. endobj Determined inhibitor efficiency in acid solutions. Measured and characterized release of inhibitors. The method of application consists in saturating the metal's storage space with vapors of an appropriate chemical compound, which forms a … A corrosion inhibitor is a chemical substance which, when added in small concentrations to an environment, minimizes or prevents corrosion. Shengxi Li, in Intelligent Coatings for Corrosion Control, 2015. Corrosion Inhibitors – Principles, Mechanisms and Applications. Polymer (PS) nanocontainers stabilized by silica nanoparticle. Keywords:Adsorption isotherm, carbon steel, inhibition mechanism, organic corrosion inhibitor, surface analyses. Article Citation: A. Marshall, An Investigation into the Mechanism of Inhibition of a Synergistic Dianodic Corrosion Inhibitor, CORROSION. Most of the biological, biochemical, pharmacological and toxicological studies of cerium compounds have been made in small animals, revealing that lanthanide salts show low toxicity (Evans, 1990; Kawagoe et al., 2008). 7 0 obj The effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors depends on the metals or alloys to be protected as well as the severity of the corrosive environment, whether the material is working (Darling and Rakshpal, 1998). While NaNO 2 addition can greatly inhibit the corrosion of carbon steel and ductile cast iron, in order to improve the similar corrosion resistance, ca. Another advantage of ion-exchange pigments, at least theoretically, is that they can reduce blistering by eliminating inhibitor leaching. They often have the molecular structure of a surfactant, with a hydrophilic group capable to bond with the metal surface and a hydrophobic part of the molecule protruding toward the solution bulk. %PDF-1.7 Earlier studies showed that, in near neutral KCl solution, the complex formed by the reaction between Cu and BTAH was [Cu(I)BTA] according to in situ Raman data. Corrosion inhibitors are chemical products which, when added to water or to any other process fluid, slow down the rate of corrosion. SAMs are probably the state-of-the-art system for silver, showing a good protection against tarnishing in sulphur-containing environments, but they are not easy to apply, so their applicability in real-life conservation practice is not simple. endobj In fact, effective and environmentally friendly inhibitors appeared to be mutually exclusive. Submitted: September 13th 2013 Reviewed: October 15th 2013 Published: February 20th 2014. Evolution of scale and corrosion inhibitors for water. Most of the in situ SERS studies on BTAH as corrosion inhibitors have been focused on Cu and Ag due to their strong Raman-enhancing effect. A corrosion inhibitor is of different types namely, anodic, cathodic, and mixed inhibitors. Hollow halloysite nanotubes (with polyelectrolyte shells). ChemTreat’s cooling water corrosion inhibitor treatments fall into several classes: Zinc. Corrosion inhibitors are usually added directly to the electrolyte or during the coating procedure of the paper separator to protect the zinc against corrosion. This type of corrosion inhibitor is known as ‘environmentally acceptable’, ‘green inhibitors’ or ‘environmentally friendly inhibitors’ (Gupta, 1998; Freiner, 2000). This means it is no longer enough that a specific inhibitor is effective against corrosion. The high corrosion inhibition efficiency of BTAH is attributed to the formation of a compact, polymerlike metal-BTAH complex on the metal surface.44–46 The structure and composition of this complex can be revealed by in situ SERS, which provides information on even only a few monolayers of adsorbed species. The protection mechanism improved over time from geometry blocking to energy effect. They are easily available and are usually innocuous, but they have a complex nature, which, added to the complexity of the heritage metals, makes it in many cases difficult to understand the mechanisms of protection or the reasons for their failure. Inhibitor was added during the synthesis process of the LDH. Similarly, the mechanism of inhibition will vary depending on the chemical nature of the inhibitor and the factor causing corrosion 4. << /D [ 3 0 R /XYZ null 242.42752 null ] The corrosion mechanism can vary considerably depending on the corrosive factors that are present. Zinc is a powerful cathodic inhibitor that works very well even in aggressive cooling systems with issues such as low hardness, low alkalinity, and high chlorides and sulfates. >> Corrosion Mechanism and Inhibitors for Al based Particulate Metal Matrix Composite (APMMCs) Ajay Singh Verma, Sumankant and N.M. Suri (Production & Industrial Engineering Department, PEC University of Technology Chandigarh, India) Chapter 6. Mechanism of Corrosion Inhibitor: Corrosion inhibition usually results from one or more of three general mechanisms: • The inhibitor molecule is adsorbed on the metal surface by the process of chemisorption, forming a thin protective film either by itself or in conjunction with metallic ions. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095472134432, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444627223000148, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857096807500152, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857096807500036, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781782421542500268, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857093479500035, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444627223000124, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444527455000976, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124114678000209, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781437734553000110, Rare Earth-Based Corrosion Inhibitors, 2014, Microencapsulated indicators and inhibitors for corrosion detection and control, Handbook of Smart Coatings for Materials Protection, Techniques for synthesizing and applying smart coatings for material protection, Direct corrosion-inhibitor incorporation in the sol–gel hybrid matrix proved unsuitable as self-healing coatings because of the negative effect of the, Corrosion inhibitors for the preservation of metallic heritage artefacts, Corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts, Corrosion inhibition with rare earth metal compounds in aqueous solutions, McCafferty, 2010; Roberge, 2000; Papavinasam, 2011, Environmental Protection Agency, 2009; RTECS, 2012, PRIMARY BATTERIES – AQUEOUS SYSTEMS | Leclanché and Zinc–Carbon, Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources, Monitoring Corrosion Using Vibrational Spectroscopic Techniques, Intelligent Coatings for Corrosion Control. So far, anion exchanging hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been found to be more effective as corrosion inhibitor carriers. In general, a weak volatile acid or base that easily hydrolyzes provides the most effective inhibition. Figure 11.5. Abstract. CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS. Makhlouf, in Handbook of Smart Coatings for Materials Protection, 2014. Inhibitor release on demand in addition to barrier effect. An example of this approach is the work of Yang and van Ooij 31 who have encapsulated soluble corrosion inhibitors, using plasma polymerization, to achieve a slow release of the inhibitor through a diffusion process. In this respect, the use of natural plant extracts as corrosion inhibitors is a very current trend. The new legislation for chemical substances requires these substances to be environmentally acceptable, with a low toxicity to humans. Since the work of an inhibitor is to decrease the anodic process rate, the corrosion potential change after an inhibitor has been added indicates a retardation in the process. Anion exchanging hydrotalcites,51–61 as well as cation exchanging bentonites,54,61 have been studied. BTA, EDTA, DEDTC copper specific anionic inhibitors form complexes, The efficiency of EDTA is attributed to its ability to sequester Cu, Waterborn epoxy primer with waterborne epoxy topcoat, EIS, filiform corrosion test, salt spray, Q-panel condensation test. An extensive review and a practical guide on inhibitor pigments were given by Sinko30, who provided an insightful discussion on inhibitor solubility. Pigment grade microcapsule/microparticles with pH-sensitive polymer wall that breaks down when corrosion starts. CRC INDUSTRIES AMERICAS GROUP. endobj Suite 101. Acidic pH-triggered release of inhibitor that precipitates in the cathodic areas. /Filter /FlateDecode >> Inhibitors forming adsorption protective films are mainly organic substances. << /D [ 3 0 R /XYZ null 380.32144 null ] A reduction in the chloride diffusion coefficient of 22–43%, depending on concrete quality, was determined using accelerated test methods. Lamaka et al. <>/Properties<>>>>> According to a standard definition,1 a corrosion inhibitor is a “chemical substance that when present in the corrosion system at a suitable concentration decreases the corrosion rate, without significantly changing the concentration of any corrosive agent.” It is generally effective in small concentrations. Vapor phase inhibitors used in corrosion protection are summarized in Table 14.1. For example, titanium dioxide (TiO2), ceria (cerium oxide, CeO2) and cerium molybdate (Ce2(MoO4)3) nanocontainers were prepared through a two-step process in which negatively charged polystyrene (PS) nanospheres were synthesized, using emulsion polymerization, and coated via the sol–gel method, to form an oxide layer. 2. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. However, these restrictions are crucial for zinc chloride cells in the lower pH region due to excessive hydrogen gas formation. Acquisition time, 10 s; accumulations, 2. Corrosion is a rampant problem in buried pipelines resulting in damage and failure of pipelines. The oxide film type corrosion inhibitor has high corrosion inhibition efficiency. >> Fig. 1. This was followed by a thermal treatment that results in a hollow nanocontainer which in turn was filled with organic inhibitors, such as 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2-MBT), 8-HQ and paratoluenesulphonic acid (p-TSA).37–42 Silica nanocapsules,43’44 silica mesoporous spheres,45,46 silica nanotubes47 and zeolites48–50 have also been used as carrier systems for corrosion inhibitors. Abstract. Inhibiting anions such as nitrite (NO2−) and amine (NH2−) substituted into organic structures increase vapor pressure, increasing their protective ability against aggressive ions in atmospheric corrosion [58]. Table 11.1. The combination of cathodic and anodic corrosion inhibitors often determines improved protection and allows to reduce the inhibitor concentration.2, Whichever the reaction hindered by the corrosion inhibitor, it will interact at the metal/solution interface by forming a film, which may be of three different types: (a) passivating film; (b) precipitation film, and (c) adsorption film.3 Passivating oxide films are 30–200 Å thick and afford excellent corrosion protection. Effective when used in combination with zinc phosphate. Readers interested in general aspects of inhibition can find guidance in the following general and classical references (McCafferty, 2010; Roberge, 2000; Papavinasam, 2011). Some mechanism of its effect are function of a passivation layer (a thin film on the surface of the material that stops access of the corrosive substance to the metal), inhibiting either the oxidation or reduction part of the redox corrosion system (anodic and cathodic inhibitors), or scavenging the dissolved oxygen. It is worth emphasizing that use of inhibitors passed from merely economic aspects towards more environmental concepts, the so-called E3 (efficiency, economy and ecology) (Kalman, 1994). Corrosion inhibitors are compared by their inhibiting efficiency (IE), the percentage that corrosion is lowered, compared with corrosion rate in their absence. Microcapsules designed to break by mechanical force. Table 15.3 summarizes the delivery systems that have been investigated for corrosion inhibitors and (in some cases) corrosion indicators. 800 Enterprise Road. L.M. endobj Vapor Phase Corrosion Inhibitor (VpCI) is a revolutionary technology that protects against corrosion, rust, oxidation, and tarnishing. << /D [ 3 0 R /XYZ null 188.66995 null ] Finally, it is worth noting the great success obtained with carboxylate treatments for different metals (copper, iron and mainly lead), which also fulfil the reversibility requirements of modern conservation-restoration ethics. Results proved that deposition of a titanium oxide layer loaded with inhibitors followed by sol–gel film is the most effective way to improve the corrosion protection. >> The high water solubility can cause several problems in coatings such as possible spontaneous leakage and uncontrolled release of the corrosion inhibitor, osmotic blistering and premature coating failure. The amount of corrosion inhibitor is generally 0.1% to 1%, which can provide significant corrosion inhibitorprotection. In addition, lanthanides are economically competitive products, as some, in particular cerium, are relatively abundant in nature (Muecke and Móller, 1988). Concerns about their use in aqueous solutions varied from the 1960s through to the early 1990s. It was confirmed that TiO2 nanostructured reservoir layer loaded with corrosion inhibitors enhances the self-healing properties of the sol–gel films. REM releasing bentonite pigments ineffective for FFC propagation, due to the low pH in the filament head electrolyte (where precipitation of REM hydroxides on cathodic site cannot occur). The scientific literature on corrosion inhibitors is huge, but the vast majority of it deals with fundamental studies of corrosion inhibition or industrial applications. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 14 0 obj 4-VP: 4-vinylpyridine. This excludes any chemical that reduces the corrosion rate by substantial pH variation, or oxygen and hydrogen sulfide scavengers, causing removal of aggressive species from the solution. Organic inorganic multilayer (dip coated). 3152 The quantum chemical calculations confirm the experimental results and suggest the physisorption mechanism of this green corrosion inhibitor. The medium can use covers acidic, neutral and gaseous. Copyright © 2002 American Chemical Society. Chromates, phosphates, nitrates, borates, silicates, zinc compounds, Cations, polyphosphates, gluconates, vanadates molybdates, phosphono acids, polyacrilates, soluble oils, carboxilates, surface active chelates, Tannins, natural compounds, surfactants, phosphono-organic, natural polymers, vitamins, ozone, REM, multifunctional organic compounds, mixtures of REM inhibitors with organic/inorganic compounds for synergism, encapsulation of inhibitors. Electrical Connection between anode and cathode (wire, metal wall, etc.) The addition of an anodic inhibitor (curve A2) promotes the formation of (−FeOOH (passive oxide), which raises the protection potential Ep, so that the anodic and cathodic curves now intersect at point X. It has been shown to work well as a thin film pre-treatment under other anti-corrosive paints, and has been commercialized in the form of primers. Corrosion inhibitors are chemical substances that, when added in small amounts to the environment in which a metal would corrode, will reduce, slow down or prevent corrosion of the metal. These films may be porous and not perfectly adherent, in this case resulting in fairly good corrosion protection. 3.3 Corrosion mechanism 3.3.1 XPS study Determination of the oxidation state of the precipitated cerium on the substrate surface is key to understanding the mechanism of corrosion inhibition. Electrochemical and accelerated corrosion tests. They are normally classified as: anodic, cathodic, film-forming and oxygen-absorbing agents depending on their mode of action. stream 2-step process with PS nanoparticle template. 13 0 obj The inhibition of anodic or cathodic corrosion reactions can be due to the reduction of the active surface area of a metal and/or to a change of the activation energy of the oxidation or reduction process in corrosion. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, green chemistry ‘consists of chemicals and chemical processes designed to reduce or eliminate negative environmental impacts. 3) Add phosphate corrosion inhibitor. Figure 20.5. Positive displacement of the corrosion potential indicates a retardation of the anodic process. Corrosion inhibitors have widespread application in suppressing or at least mitigating the corrosion process of metals in different fields, spanning from industrial sectors to construction materials to surface treatments for cultural heritage. Water-based epoxy primer overcoated with a water-based epoxy topcoat, SEM, TGA/DSC, EIS, SVET and standard corrosion tests. pH-sensitive microcapsules and microparticles, PPA, cerium molybdate, corrosion indicators. Eletrochemical Study of 1,3,4-Triazolium-2-Thiol as a Corrosion Inhibitor of Mild Steel in Saline Medium When no inhibitors are present, the anodic (A1) and cathodic curves (C1) intersect at point W. Severe pitting corrosion is occurring. Oxide nanocontainers prepared through a 2-step process to form anionically charged polystyrene (PS) nanospheres coated via the sol–gel method. << /D [ 3 0 R /XYZ null 140.60178 null ] >> A cathodic protection mechanism which is similar to that offered by corrosion inhibitor zinc Thus, the polyaniline must be in direct contact with the metallic substrate in order to be effective. 15 0 obj 4) Add silicate corrosion inhibitor. A corrosion and inhibition mechanism is proposed whereby ion is added to oxidize. This definition, paraphrased from ISO 8044-89, makes the distinction between a corrosion inhibitor and other additions to concrete that improve corrosion resistance by reducing chloride ingress into the concrete. The steel is passive as in the case of the anodic inhibitor alone (point X), but the passive corrosion rate is reduced further. endobj In relatively strong acidic environment (e.g., H2SO4), [Cu(I)BTA]n complex was found as the film formed on the surface of Cu and its alloys. Similar in situ SERS results were observed on Ag in either halide media or acetonitrile solution with BTAH.45,55 In addition, in situ SERS studies were also extended to Fe, Ni, and Co by proper electrochemical roughing procedures.46,56, Other inhibitors that have been studied using in situ SERS include triethylstibine for Fe and Ni,57 propargyl alcohol for Fe,58 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) for Cu,59 phytic acid (IP6) for Ag,60 volatile corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel,61 salicylate for Cu,62 and benzyldimethylphenylammonium chloride (BDMPAC) for low carbon steel,63 methimazole (MMI) for Cu,64 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AMT) for Ag65 and Co,66 3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (AMTA) for Fe,67 and 2-amino-5-(4-pyridinyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (4-APTD) for Cu.68, Neal Berke, in Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials (Second Edition), 2012. This class includes also nonoxidizing inhibitors, such as tungstates and molybdates, affording their passivating effect only in aerated solutions.4,5. These inhibitors possess a high vapor pressure at normal temperature and protect the metal by forming a bond and barrier layer on the metal surface. BTA-containing HPRP nanoparticles, when added to an epoxy added to an epoxy superb corrosion protection for steel at a very low BTA concentration (0.1%). Benzotriazole (BTAH) has been used as an effective corrosion inhibitor for Cu and its alloys since the 1950s,43 and was also extended to other metals. Corrosion inhibitors have been used in corrosion protective coatings for a long time. As a result, they cause a shift of the corrosion potential of the inhibited metal toward respectively either the cathodic or the anodic directions or they substantially leave the metal corrosion potential more or less unchanged. High-pH-responsive polymer (HRPP) nanoparticles. endobj However, despite these new regulations it is interesting to note that the USA, for instance, has reportedly levied $10,000-a-day fines against companies where chromium invades the water supply (El-Meligi, 2010). The main corrosion inhibitor agent in the apple pomace extract was C 26 H 50 NO 7 P molecule. The oxygen corrosion mechanism on carbon steel was established through the comparison of the cathodic and anodic currents in the presence of 3% 02 in 97% C02 and 100% C02. Among them, classical oxidizing inhibitors can be found, such as chromates and nitrites, now largely abandoned because of toxicity concerns, except in cases where corrosion can pose severe human safety concerns (e.g., in aeronautical industry and building construction). By Camila G. Dariva and Alexandre F. Galio. A corrosion inhibitor is a substance which, when added to an environment in a small concentration, effectively reduces the corrosion rate of a metal exposed to that environment. << /D [ 3 0 R /XYZ null 629.5473 null ] 1981;37(4):214-222. Polyelectrolyte/inhibitor sandwich-like nanostructure, SEM, IRRA, SVET, Immersion in NaCl solution, A sandwich nanostructure is formed on the metal surface sponge: PEI/PSS/8-HQ/PSS/PEI, SiO 2 nanoparticles coated with LBL polyelectrolyte and inhibitor, A silica–zirconia-based hybrid film was used as an anticorrosion coating deposited on aluminum 2024. << /D [ 3 0 R /XYZ null 349.94266 null ] A corrosion inhibitor is a chemical substance that inhibits or reduces the corrosion rate of a metal when it's added to its surrounding corrosive environment. endobj Fortunately, ideas about corrosion inhibitors started to change in the mid-1980s. Environmental protection legislation was raised to prevent the use of environmentally unacceptable materials such as chromium salts, which are now restricted because chromium (Cr6+) is highly toxic and carcinogenic. The use of a well-adhering thin nanoporous layer of TiO. Though the corrosion rate is reduced, pitting corrosion still occurs because the potential remains more positive than Ep. Established validity if exploiting ion–dipole interaction design of nanovalves based on cucurbit[6]uril rings as the gatekeepers suitable to functionalize masoporous silica nanoparticles. K. Kordesch, W. Taucher-Mautner, in Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources, 2009. The inhibition effect of potassium dichromate, potassium chromate and potassium permanganate on aluminum and magnesium in an aqueous solution containing oxygen belongs to this category. Addition of the nanocontainers to commercial primers improves the corrosion protection performance of the primer. Inhibitors for copper and their alloys, mainly bronze, have attracted most of the attention; on the other hand, those for iron, silver and lead have been less studied. Corrosion inhibitors are chemical compounds that can decrease the corrosion rate of a material, typically a metal or an alloy. Many of these systems have been investigated in solution and some have been incorporated in coatings for corrosion testing. As Gupta (2004) remarks, ‘still, revolutionary conceptual change in the development and application of this important area of technology is pending’. The scientific community is devoting great effort to search for and produce inhibitors that combine low toxicity with high inhibition efficiency. SERS spectra of Benzotriazole obtained from 0.1 M KCl at a Cu electrode at potentials indicated. This was evidenced by the redshifts of the in-plane trigonal breathing mode from 1041 cm− 1 at − 0.5 V to 1021 cm − 1 at − 1.1 V and the increase in intensity of the NH in-plane bending mode (1144 cm− 1) at more negative potentials (Figure 20.5).46 Therefore, it is probably necessary to take into account the effect of the presence of the [CuI(BTAH)]4 or [Cu(I)-ClBTAH]4 complexes in the corrosion inhibition of Cu in mild acidic KCl solution containing BTAH. A similar effect was obtained by incorporating corrosion inhibitors into inorganic oxide nanoparticles where their porous sol–gel network structures were used as reservoirs for storage and prolonged release of inhibitors.32–36 This approach addresses the high solubility as well as the compatibility issue of the inhibitor with resin systems. Corrosion inhibitors are chemical compounds that are added to the surroundings (liquids or gases) of metallic materials to decrease their corrosion. Silica-PS-4VP-MBT. Comparison of anodic and cathodic inhibitors. Delivery systems for corrosion inhibitors. 19 0 obj As inhibitor concentration is increased further, however, the chloride ion – inhibitor ratio decreases within the pores and breakdown process is again suspended and a reduction in corrosion rate is observed. Novel encapsulation system based on sonochemically formed porous metal layer which is continuous with the base metal. It includes boiler cooling water, descaling and rust removing acid solution and gas phase corrosion inhibitor.

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